BODB Insert BOP

In BODB, a Brain Operating Principle is a generalized description of an “operating principle” common to a range of functions (schemas) or structures (regions, circuits, neurons, etc.) of the brain. At the micro-level, the principle could describe electro-chemical dynamics; at the macro-level, it might describe the activity of multiple groups of cells achieving some task by competitive and/or cooperative means.

In general, a principle specific to the operation of a single model does not count as a BOP. Rather, it should simply be part of the description of the relevant model. The same applies to a principle describing a single functionality of a brain region as modeled by a set of alternate models. The whole idea of BOPs is to let one search for models which are related by “how they work” (a functional ontology) rather than by the brain regions they model (a structural ontology). Clearly, a principle specific to one model or to very similar models does not serve this purpose (though there may be very rare exceptions).

One example of a Brain Operating is the Winner-Take-All (WTA) Principle, which asserts that “A Winner-Take-All network responds (after a delay) to an array of inputs of different intensity with an output array which encodes which input had the greatest intensity.” This BOP applies to aspects of the operation of a varied range of models. These include: (i) The Prey-Selector Model of Didday (1976) which models the frog’s tectum as a Winner-Take-All network that selects one of several visually presented prey objects. (ii) The Dominey and Arbib (1992) model of the control of saccades: The superior colliculus is modeled as a WTA for selecting among a set of retinotopically coded targets. (iii) Self-Organizing feature Maps (Kohonen, 1982): At each training trial, the WTA selects the neuron that responds best, then provides a Hebbian adjustment to nearby neurons in relation to the current stimulus, with the size of the synaptic change decaying with distance from the winner. (iv) The Taxon-Affordance Model (Guazzelli et al., 1998): Premotor cortex combines maps of affordances, incentives and expected reinforcement and then applies a WTA to choose a particular affordance. (v) The basal ganglia based model (Redgrave, Prescott and Gurney, 1999) for selecting one of several competing actions. (vi) The Itti & Koch (2000) model of visual attention which applies WTA to a sum of feature maps to locate the most location in a given scene.

A form for populating BODB with BOPs will be described here that is shown after clicking on the “Brain Operating Principle” link in the Insert page. Click on the “Save Draft” button to save a draft of the present principle to the BODB database. The principal draft will also be available to edit at a later time and will be listed in the Workspace for convenience.

The input form for Brain Operating Principle entries.

The input form for Brain Operating Principle entries.


Title

The name of the principle, e.g. “Winner-Take-All”. It is very important to first search for existing BOPs to increase the utility of BODB by helping collators gather similar BOPs into a single entry, where this is appropriate.

Parent

The BOP entry with a parent relationship to this one. For example, “Reinforcement learning” would be the parent of “Temporal difference learning”. In order to link to an existing BOP, click on the “Search” button, which will open the BOP search window. Clicking on the “Add” button will open another Add BOP window in order to add a new BOP as the parent.

Brief Description

A brief description of the principle. We provide a text input area but in general the entry should be much shorter (say 200 words) since a full description can be entered in the “Narrative” field.

Narrative

A full length description of the present principle.

Tags

A list of keywords associated with this BOP entry.

Figures

Clicking on the “Show” link in the “Figures” section will expand the Figures section, displaying figures linked to the current entry and allowing the user to add new figures. After expansion, the “Show” link will turn into a “Hide” link that can be used to collapse the Figures section.

The expanded Figures section

The expanded Figures section

To add a new figure, click on the “Add new” link. This will open up the Add Figure window. Clicking the “Edit” link next to an existing figure will open the Edit Figure window, while clicking “Delete” will delete the figure and remove it from the BOP.

Summaries of Experimental Data (SEDs)

Clicking on the “Show” link in the “Summaries of Experimental Data (SEDs)” section will expand the SEDs section, displaying the SEDs linked to the current entry and allowing the user to add new SEDs. After expansion, the “Show” link will turn into a “Hide” link that can be used to collapse the SEDs section.

The expanded SEDs section

The expanded SEDs section

In order to add an existing SED to the current BOP, clicking on the “Search” link will open the SED Search window. Clicking “Select” next to one of the search results will add that SED to the current BOP entry. In order to add a new SED and link it to the current BOP entry, click on the “Add new” link which will add a new SED form to the SEDs section. The form contains fields for the SED name, relationship to the current BOP, and description.

A specific summary datum may be classified as pertaining to the present BOP in 2 different ways. 1.Scene setting – Background information that is not specifically used in developing or assessing the principle. 2.Support – These are data that are examples of the principle.

After the user links an existing SED or adds a new one, she should specify the relation between the present BOP entry and the SED as one of “Scene Setting” or “Support”. This will aid in clarifying how the summary data relate to the principle.

Clicking on the “Expand” link will make visible fields for SED tags and a narrative. The “Expand” link will then turn into a “Collapse” link that can be clicked to hide the Tags and Narrative fields. Clicking on the “Remove” link next to a linked SED will remove that SED from the current BOP entry.

Related BOPs

This allows listing of principles related to the present principle. Clicking on the “Show” link in the “Related BOPs” section will expand the Related BOPs section, displaying the BOPs linked to the current entry and allowing the user to add new BOPs. After expansion, the “Show” link will turn into a “Hide” link that can be used to collapse the Related BOPs section.

The expanded Related BOPs section

The expanded Related BOPs section

In order to add an existing BOP to the current BOP, clicking on the “Search” link will open the BOP Search window. Clicking “Select” next to one of the search results will add that BOP to the current BOP entry. In order to add a new BOP and link it to the current BOP entry, click on the “Add new” link which will add a new BOP form to the Related BOPs section. The form contains fields for the BOP name, relationship to the current BOP, and description. Clicking on the “Expand” link will make visible fields for BOP parent, tags, and a narrative. The “Expand” link will then turn into a “Collapse” link that can be clicked to hide the Parent, Tags, and Narrative fields. Clicking on the “Remove” link next to a linked BOP will remove that BOP from the current entry.

Related Models

This will list any models that use this principle. Clicking on the “Show” link in the “Related Models” section will expand the Related Models section, displaying the Models linked to the current entry and allowing the user to add new Models. After expansion, the “Show” link will turn into a “Hide” link that can be used to collapse the Related Models section.

The expanded Related Models section

The expanded Related Models section

In order to add an existing Model to the current BOP, clicking on the “Search” link will open the Model Search window. Clicking “Select” next to one of the search results will add that Model to the current BOP entry. In order to add a new Model and link it to the current BOP entry, click on the “Add new” link which will add a new Model form to the Related Models section. The form contains fields for the Model name and description. Clicking on the “Expand” link will make visible fields for Model tags and narrative. The “Expand” link will then turn into a “Collapse” link that can be clicked to hide the Tags and Narrative fields. Clicking on the “Remove” link next to a linked Model will remove that Model from the current entry.

Related Brain Regions

Brain region(s) that relate to the present principle. For example, reinforcement learning has many related brain regions: Basal Ganglia, Prefrontal Cortex, etc. Clicking on the “Show” link in the “Related Brain Regions” section will expand the Related Brain Regions section, displaying the Brain Regions linked to the current entry. After expansion, the “Show” link will turn into a “Hide” link that can be used to collapse the Related Brain Regions section.

The expanded Related Brain Regions section

The expanded Related Brain Regions section

In order to add an existing Brain Region to the current BOP, clicking on the “Search” link will open the Brain Region Search window. Clicking “Select” next to one of the search results will add that Brain Region to the current BOP entry. Clicking “Remove” next to a linked Brain Region will remove it from the current BOP entry.

References

References to articles, books chapters, etc., relevant to this principle. Clicking on the “Show” link in the “References” section will expand the References section, displaying Literature linked to the current entry and allowing the user to add new Literature entries. After expansion, the “Show” link will turn into a “Hide” link that can be used to collapse the References section.

The expanded References section

The expanded References section

To link an existing Literature entry to the current BOP, click on the “Search” link. This will open the Literature Search window where “Select” link next to any search result can be clicked to link it to the current BOP entry. To add a new Literature entry, click on the “Add new” link. This will open up the Insert Literature window. Clicking the “Edit” link next to an existing Literature entry will open the Edit Literature window, while clicking “Remove” will remove the Literature entry from the BOP.